How does exercise impact your sleep?
Physical exercise is considered a good, non-pharmacological approach to boost sleep. A recent systematic review and meta-analysis suggested that adolescents with higher subjective and objective physical activity are more likely to experience good sleep subjectively and objectively. Likewise, among adult patients with obstructive sleep apnea, physical exercise as the sole intervention was associated with improved sleep outcomes.
How does alcohol impact sleep?
Alcohol is a sedative, which can help induce sleep, however, it’ll cause more fragmented sleep and awakenings during the night. additionally, alcohol can worsen obstructive sleep apnea. Self-reported sleep problems are highly prevalent among alcohol users with rates of clinical insomnia ranging between thirty-five and seventieth, depending on the setting and stage of use. Similarly, published studies utilizing polysomnography show that sleep latency is prolonged during periods of drinking, acute withdrawal (e.g., 1- 2 weeks of abstinence), and during post-acute withdrawal (e.g., up to eight weeks). evidence also points to disturbances in sleep architecture, with alcohol significantly reducing slow wave sleep time (believed to be most restorative sleep) and REM sleep time with chronic use.
How does caffeine impact sleep?
Caffeine is a central nervous system stimulator. It prolongs sleep latency, reduces total sleep time and sleep efficiency, and worsens perceived sleep quality. Slow-wave sleep is typically reduced, whereas wakefulness, transitional stage of sleep and arousals are increased. A recent systematic review reported on dose- and timing-response relationships between caffeine intake and sleep. It has been reported that older adults’ sleep may be more sensitive to caffeine than younger adults’.